Solar Farms

Lapsset Corridor Solar Farms

Afri Fund Capital & PSECC Ltd together with partners have come together to develop and provide full funding for LCDA & Government to have Solar Farms and receive 30% revenues USD 7.857 million each year from each 300MW solar farm

10 x 300MW Solar Farms proposed

The electricity from each solar farm could provide power for transportation such as the Railway and electricity charging for Electric Vehicles (EV’s)- an alternative to Oil usage in transportation. The first two projects for Lapsset Energy should be one 300MW solar farm at Isiolo, operational by June 2025 and another 300MW solar farm with Green Hydrogen plant at Lamu Port and could be operational in December 2025. In view of extremes of drought and wet seasons due to Climate Change then it is proposed many smaller solar farms be built eight feet off the ground to enable food production on the same land under the solar arrays. This approach can save upto 40% savings in water usage and increase crop yields.

Pumping station power by Solar PV & Solar Farm to irrigate agricultural land

PSECC Ltd first Solar Farm project within the Lapsset Corridor – funding being negotiated & EPC

Stages in a Solar Farm development

  1. Site selection feasibility study & Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA): The first stage involves identifying potential sites for the solar farm and conducting a feasibility study & EIA to determine if the site is suitable for solar power generation taking account of aspects such as flooding potential.
  2. Permitting and approvals: Once a site has been selected, the developer must obtain the necessary permits and approvals from local authorities and regulatory bodies. This includes environmental impact assessments, land use permits, and grid interconnection agreements.
  3. EPC – Design and engineering: The next step involves designing the layout of the solar farm, including the placement of solar panels, inverters, and other equipment. Engineering studies are also conducted to ensure that the project will meet all technical requirements.
  4. Financing and funding: Securing financing for the project is a crucial step in the development process. This may involve obtaining loans, securing grants or incentives, or attracting investors.
  5. EPC – Procurement and construction: Once financing has been secured, the developer can begin procuring the necessary equipment and materials for the project. Construction of the solar farm can then begin, with contractors overseeing the installation of solar panels, wiring, inverters, and other components.
  6. Testing and commissioning: After construction is complete, the solar farm must undergo testing and commissioning to ensure that it is operating properly. This involves checking the performance of the equipment, conducting safety inspections, and connecting the solar farm to the grid.
  7. Operations and maintenance: Once the solar farm is operational, ongoing operations and maintenance are required to ensure that it continues to generate power efficiently. This includes monitoring performance, conducting routine maintenance, and making any necessary repairs.
  8. Revenue generation: Once the solar farm is fully operational, it can begin generating revenue through the sale of electricity to local utilities or through power purchase agreements with commercial and industrial customers. The financial viability of the project depends on the revenue generated and the operating costs associated with maintaining the solar farm.

Government revenue share

As we have seen, the Kenya Government will have 30% shareholding in each 300MW Solar Farm – Government will receive $3.15 million each year from each solar farm totalling $31.5 million each year from the ten 300MW solar farms envisaged for the Lapsset Corridor.

PVSyst – Isiolo 300MW Solar Farm, Kenya

Funding based on 20% Equity- 80% Debt – we are hoping to get funding at 100% Equity

300MW Solar Farm at Isiolo

If 100% Equity funding then:

System Energy production = 523,806 MWh/year

Electricity PPA will be =USD 0.05 KWh

So, 523,806,000 KWh@0.05=USD 26.190 million per year.

(No Debt repayment as funding is all Equity investment)

Government would receive USD 7.857 million each year from each 300MW Solar Farm

Typical stages

Land lease agreement

Feasibility Study – EIA – Hydrological Study – Grid connection study

Licence’s – Permits

PPA

EPC – Design – Build – Commissioning – Operational

The British Army in the UK are now building Solar Farms on MoD land following PSECC giving Renewable Energy advice to the MOD – Ministry of Defence in 2006 and the Royal Nave endorsed in June 1996 the PSECC Energy policy written for the City of Portsmouth by Alan Brewer

Problems with dust

International researchers have investigated the impact of dust accumulation on the performance of PV systems in two climate regions of Pakistan. They quantified the precise amount of dust density on the panels and analysed the composition and particle size.

The scientists created one setup on the rooftop of a building in the Pakistani capital, Islamabad, and another one in the southern city of Bahawalpur. “Islamabad’s climate is clean, pleasant and warm with an average annual temperature of 20.3 C. Even the driest month contains much rainfall, which contributes to cleaning PV modules,” they said. “Bahawalpur is located in a desert region with a dry climate with virtually no rainfall but with frequent wind and dust storms with an average annual temperature of 26.1 C.”The setups consisted of 40 W polycrystalline modules and reference panels that were kept constantly clean. All modules were mounted on south-facing metal stands with fixed tilt angles of 34 degrees.

The research group collected global solar radiation data as well as the voltage and current of each module. They adjusted glass sheets to the PV modules to collect dust and analyse its properties. “After six weeks of atmospheric exposure, dusty modules displayed significantly smaller efficiency as a function of different dust densities in the two regions,” they noted

The total dust accumulated in Islamabad was 6.388 g/m2, with a daily average of 0.152 g/m2. In Bahawalpur, total dust accumulation was 10.254 g/m2 and the daily average was 0.244 g/m2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that in both cities the particles had distinct sizes, unsymmetrical shapes, and uneven arrangement. “In the dust sample collected from Islamabad, carbon dominates with 55.8% composition followed by oxygen, silicon and calcium with 22.71%, 9.78% and 3.85% composition respectively. Aluminium, iron, potassium, magnesium, and sodium are also found in significantly fewer quantities,” the group said. “In the dust sample collected from Bahawalpur oxygen leads to a 46.9% composition followed by carbon, silicon and aluminium with compositions of 20.11%, 16.98% and 4.26% respectively.

”Comparing the dirty and clean modules in each city, the researchers detected a reduction in output power of 15.08% in Islamabad and a 25.42% reduction in output power in Bahawalpur. The researchers concluded that the reduced output was attributable not only to the fact that dust reduces sunlight absorption via the so-called shielding effect but also to the dust-temperature phenomenon.

The latter occurs because the dust on the PV module causes a change in the form of heat transfer and leads to the formation of hotspots. They presented their findings in “Effect of dust accumulation on the performance of photovoltaic modules for different climate regions,” which was recently published in Heliyon. The team included academics from Pakistan’s National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) and the Islamic University of Bahawalpur, as well as the United Kingdom’s University of Warwick.

PSECC Ltd worked with the company BP – British Petroleum on Solar PV technology in 2004 in Hampshire County – UK

Kenya could have food production under these solar farms with some of the power taken for irrigation & refrigeration of crops then transportation within the Lapsset Corridor for internal use or export

Harvesting the Sun Twice

PSECC Ltd will develop 1,000 of the “Harvesting the Sun Twice” Solar PV with Food production Agrivoltaics units throughout the Lapsset Corridor.

While ground-mounted arrays of solar panels offer several benefits related to clean energy provision, they miss opportunities to deliver livelihood benefits in addition to electricity supply, and in some cases can actually detract from other development goals. For example, ground-mounted arrays remove land from food production, and at a time when crop yields are threatened by a changing climate, increasing populations and insecure land ownership, we cannot risk putting further pressure on land resources. 

Proposed new Renewable Energies for Lapsset Corridor – solar farms in red

300MW Solar Farm with Bi-Facial tracking system

Financials

Revenue generation for LCDA & Government to be used for the peoplewe provide full funding & technologies

Some specific technical design aspects that must be included in a solar farm project are:

  1. Solar panel placement: Determining the optimal placement and orientation of solar panels to maximize sunlight exposure and energy production.
  2. Inverter selection: Choosing the appropriate type and capacity of inverters to convert DC power generated by the solar panels into usable AC power for the grid.
  3. Mounting structure design: Designing the mounting structures that support the solar panels, taking into account factors such as wind loads, snow loads, and site-specific conditions such as flooding potential.
  4. Electrical design: Designing the layout of electrical wiring, switchgear, and transformers to efficiently transmit electricity from the solar panels to the grid.
  5. Grid interconnection: Designing the connection point to the grid and ensuring compliance with local grid connection requirements and regulations.
  6. Monitoring system: Implementing a monitoring system to track the performance of the solar farm, identify issues, and optimize energy production.
  7. Security and safety features: Incorporating security measures such as fencing, surveillance cameras, and alarms to protect the solar farm from theft or vandalism. Additionally, implementing safety measures to protect workers during installation and maintenance activities.
  8. Environmental considerations: Incorporating features such as stormwater management systems, erosion controls, and native vegetation landscaping to minimize environmental impacts and comply with environmental regulations.
  9. Grounding and lightning protection: Implementing grounding and lightning protection systems to protect the solar farm equipment from damage during electrical storms.
  10. O&M access: Designing access roads and pathways for maintenance vehicles and personnel to easily reach different parts of the solar farm for routine maintenance and repairs.

Net Zero IN ACTION….

Councils should develop Solar Farms in their areas for Renewable Energy generation – TO PROVIDE LOWER COSTS FOR THE POPULATION.

USA example….

Our previous development work (Kenyalight / PSECC Ltd)