Road

Two lane highway running from Lamu through Garissa, Isiolo to Juba and Addis Ababa – the Addis Ababa Ethiopia road has already been constructed. Second branch from Isiolo to Mwingi.

The Lapsset Corridor road, which is also known as the Lamu Port-South Sudan-Ethiopia Transport (Lapsset) Corridor road, is a major infrastructure project in East Africa. It is part of the larger Lapsset Corridor Development Project, aimed at improving regional connectivity and promoting trade and economic growth. The Lapsset Corridor road involves the construction of a highway that will span approximately 1,730 kilometres, connecting the Kenyan coastal town of Lamu to South Sudan and Ethiopia. The road will pass through various regions in Kenya, including Garissa, Isiolo, and Marsabit.

The new tarmac road runs from Lamu port all the way to Nairobi, eventually onto Isiolo, Ethiopia and Southern-Sudan.

The tarmac road from Lamu port to Nairobi has been completed. However, the extension of the road from Isiolo to Ethiopia and Southern Sudan is still under construction as part of the LAPSSET project. The project is being implemented in phases, and work is ongoing to extend the road further to connect with Ethiopia and Southern Sudan. It is expected that once completed, the road will provide a crucial transport link for these neighbouring countries to access the Indian Ocean through Kenya.

It will be important to use Sustainable low emission concrete to meet COP 28 aspirations

“Green” Cement & Concrete should be used in Lapsset Corridor

There are several methods that can be implemented in existing cement works to capture carbon dioxide or lower emissions:

1. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): This technology involves capturing carbon dioxide emissions at the source, such as through flue gas scrubbing, and then storing it underground or utilizing it for other purposes. CCS can significantly reduce emissions from cement plants.

2. Energy efficiency improvements: Implementing energy-efficient measures can help reduce emissions in cement works. This can include using more efficient kilns, heat recovery systems, and optimizing the production process to minimize energy consumption.

3. Alternative fuels: Cement works can substitute fossil fuels, such as coal and oil, with low-carbon or carbon-neutral alternative fuels, like biomass, waste-derived fuels, or even municipal solid waste. This can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with the combustion of traditional fossil fuels.

4. Blended cements: Cement manufacturers can produce blended cements by mixing the traditional clinker with supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) like fly ash, slag, or limestone filler. These materials can reduce the amount of clinker required, which not only decreases emissions but also conserves natural resources.

5. Carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS): This approach involves capturing CO2 emissions and utilizing them in other industrial processes or permanently storing them. CCUS technologies can be integrated into cement works to capture CO2 from flue gas streams and use it for enhanced oil recovery or other applications.

6. Technological advancements: Constant research and development in cement production technologies can help identify new methods for reducing emissions. This includes advancements in kiln design, clinker production, and the use of alternative raw materials.

7. Carbon offsetting: Cement works can also invest in carbon offset projects to neutralize their emissions. This involves supporting initiatives like reforestation, renewable energy projects, or other carbon reduction activities to compensate for the emissions produced during cement production. It is important to note that different solutions may be suitable for specific cement plants depending on their infrastructure, location, and available resources.

The project is significant for several reasons. Firstly, it will provide a direct route for transportation of goods from the Lamu Port to landlocked countries like South Sudan and Ethiopia, reducing reliance on the existing port in Djibouti. Additionally, it will enhance regional integration and trade, as the road will facilitate the movement of people, goods, and services between the countries. Moreover, the Lapsset Corridor road is expected to have several economic benefits. It will open up remote and marginalized regions in northern Kenya, boosting socio-economic development and creating employment opportunities. The road will also stimulate investment in sectors such as tourism, agriculture, and manufacturing along the corridor. Overall, the Lapsset Corridor road is a strategic transport infrastructure project that aims to improve connectivity, trade, and economic development in East Africa.

The Global MOU is the first global agreement aligning the goals of national governments to decarbonize trucks and buses, a segment of the market that contributes disproportionately to CO2 emissions and air pollution. The document that follows establishes the policy status of the Global MOU countries—and several countries not yet signatories—and outlines the major policy developments to date.

Cement plants

Cement plants are a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions, primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), which contribute to climate change.

The main emissions associated with cement plants are:

1. Carbon dioxide (CO2): The primary greenhouse gas emitted during cement production is carbon dioxide, which is released through the chemical reaction of limestone (calcium carbonate) and other raw materials, known as calcination, as well as fuel combustion during clinker production. CO2 emissions from cement plants are a major contributor to global CO2 emissions.

2. Nitrous oxide (N2O): Nitrous oxide emissions can occur during the combustion of fossil fuels in cement kilns, as well as through the use of nitrogen-containing compounds, such as fertilizers or waste materials. N2O is a potent greenhouse gas with a higher warming potential than CO2, although its emissions from cement plants are comparatively lower than CO2.

3. Sulphur dioxide (SO2): Sulphur dioxide is released into the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels that contain sulphur compounds. This can lead to the formation of sulfuric acid (acid rain) and contribute to air pollution as well as environmental degradation.

4. Particulate matter: Cement plants can release particulate matter, which consists of fine particles and dust, into the air during various stages of production, including raw material handling, grinding, and clinker cooling. Particulate matter can have detrimental effects on air quality and human health.

5. Mercury (Hg): Cement plants may also emit mercury, primarily during the combustion process if the fuels used contain mercury. Mercury is a toxic heavy metal that can have severe health and environmental impacts. To mitigate these emissions, cement plants can adopt various measures such as implementing energy-efficient technologies, using alternative fuels or biomass, reducing clinker content in cement, employing carbon capture and storage technologies, and overall improving the overall efficiency of the production process. These measures can help reduce the environmental impact of cement plants and contribute to climate change mitigation efforts.

Sustainable cement should be used – reduces carbon emissions by about 13,000 tonnes a year.”

Capture and store the nearly 4 million tons of Carbon Dioxide emitted from Cement works in Kenya each year. This involves capturing CO2 at the source and storing it underground or utilizing it for other purposes, such as in the production of other materials like concrete.

1. Waste heat recovery: Install waste heat recovery systems in cement plants to capture and utilize the excess heat generated during the production process. This recovered heat can be used for various purposes, such as generating electricity or providing heat for other industrial processes.

2. Water conservation and recycling: Implement water management strategies to minimize water usage in cement production, including the use of water-efficient technologies and recycling of process water. This can help reduce the strain on local water resources and promote sustainable water management.

3. Sustainable sourcing of raw materials: Ensure that the raw materials used in cement production, such as limestone and clay, are sourced sustainably, taking into account environmental and social factors. This includes practices like responsible quarrying, land restoration, and community engagement.

4. Environmental and social impact assessment: Conduct thorough environmental and social impact assessments of cement production facilities to identify and mitigate potential negative impacts on local ecosystems, communities, and biodiversity.

5. Certification and standards: Seek certifications such as the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) or International Organization for Standardization (ISO) certifications that signify adherence to sustainable practices in cement production. By adopting these measures, cement used in the construction of the Lapsset Corridor road can be produced in a more sustainable and environmentally friendly manner, minimizing its carbon footprint and promoting responsible resource management.

Chinese (previous partners ) withdraw

The Chinese company China Communication Construction Company (CCCC) pulled out of the LAPSSET Corridor project in Kenya in 2019 due to financial and contractual disagreements with the Kenyan government. The LAPSSET Corridor project is a massive infrastructure development initiative aimed at connecting Kenya’s Lamu Port to South Sudan and Ethiopia through a network of rail, road, and pipeline infrastructure.

The project faced numerous challenges, including delays, funding issues, and changes in the project scope. The Chinese company expressed frustration over the slow progress and lack of payment for work done. There were also reports of corruption and mismanagement in the project, which may have contributed to CCCC’s decision to withdraw.

Additionally, the Chinese government has been more cautious in recent years about investing in overseas infrastructure projects due to concerns about debt sustainability and transparency. This may have also played a role in CCCC’s decision to pull out of the LAPSSET Corridor project.