Nuclear

Also Rolls-Royce have a SMR

PSECC Ltd recommend two of these plants

Kenya Nuclear programme

COP28 indicated the importance of Adaption and to “Transition” into a Net Zero economy. Kenya targets to commence the construction of its first nuclear power plant in 2027 onwards as the country seeks to further diversify its energy generation amid rising demand and push for zero-carbon energy. PSECC Ltd are proposing two 470MW Small Modular Reactors from Rolls-Royce to total 940MW – Kenya’s target being 1,000MW.

Kilifi and Kwale are the Kenya Government’s ideal sites for Nuclear Energy Plants Kilifi and Kwale are counties in Kenya, and they are part of the LAPSSET Corridor project – Kilifi County is located on the coast of Kenya, and Kwale County is also situated on the coast, to the south of Kilifi.

Kenya plans to utilize nuclear power for electricity generation by 2034 in order to meet its decarbonisation targets, improve stability and reliability of supply as well as lowering the cost. Energy Principal Secretary Alex Wachira says nuclear energy would provide a suitable baseload alongside geothermal to help spur Kenya’s economic development – PSECC Ltd recommend Rolls-Royce to Kenya for consideration.

PSECC Ltd believe that Small Modular Reactors (SMR) should form the basis of Nuclear Energy plants in Kenya in keeping with the Government’s launch of 2027.

 If the Lapsset Corridor in Kenya has two 470MW Small Modular Reactors from Rolls-Royce totalling 940MW how much electricity can be produced and can it be sold at USD 0.05 KWh
Electricity Production Potential:

The two 470MW Rolls-Royce Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) in the Lapsset Corridor, with a total capacity of 940MW, can potentially produce a significant amount of electricity. Here’s how to estimate their annual production:

  1. Plant Capacity Factor: This represents the percentage of time a power plant operates at its full capacity. Nuclear power plants typically have high capacity factors due to their baseload nature. A conservative estimate for capacity factor in this case could be 90%.
  2. Annual Electricity Production:

Annual Production (kWh) = Total Capacity (MW) x Capacity Factor x Hours per Year

  • Annual Production = 940 MW * 0.9 (capacity factor) * 8760 hours/year (assuming 8760 hours per year)
  • Annual Production ≈ 7,410,960,000 kWh (or 7.41 TWh)

Therefore, these SMRs could potentially generate around 7.41 Terawatt-hours (TWh) of electricity annually.

Selling Price at USD 0.05 kWh:

Selling electricity at USD 0.05 per kWh (kilowatt-hour) might be challenging based on current global trends for several reasons:

  • Global Nuclear Power Costs: The current global average levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for nuclear power is around USD 0.12-0.18 kWh (source: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA): https://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/PUB1813_web.pdf). While costs can vary depending on location and specific project details, reaching USD 0.05 kWh would be significantly lower than the current range.
  • Financing and Construction Costs: The upfront costs of building nuclear power plants, including reactor construction, financing, and safety measures, are generally high. Spreading these costs over the electricity produced over the plant’s lifetime contributes to the LCOE.

However, there are some potential scenarios where the USD 0.05 kWh target might be approached in the future:

  • Technological Advancements: Advancements in SMR technology could potentially lead to lower construction and operational costs compared to traditional nuclear reactors.
  • Government Subsidies: Government subsidies or other financial incentives could help bring down the LCOE and make nuclear power more competitive.
Conclusion:

The Lapsset Corridor’s SMRs have the potential to generate a substantial amount of clean electricity. However, selling it at USD 0.05 kWh might be difficult based on current global trends. While future advancements and potential subsidies could make this price more achievable, a more realistic target price in the near future might be in the range of USD 0.12-0.18 kWh, which is closer to the current global average for nuclear power.

The Rolls-Royce SMR (Small Modular Reactor) is a type of small modular reactor. Small modular reactors are compact nuclear reactors that are designed to be built in a factory and then transported to the site where they will be installed. They are smaller in size compared to conventional nuclear reactors and offer certain advantages such as flexibility in deployment, scalability, and enhanced safety features.

The Rolls-Royce SMR is an advanced reactor concept developed by UK-based engineering company Rolls-Royce. It is designed to be an integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) with a capacity of around 440MWe (megawatts electric). The Rolls-Royce SMR is intended to provide low-carbon electricity generation and heat for a variety of applications, including industrial processes and district heating.

Overall, the Rolls-Royce SMR is a promising small modular advanced reactor design that aims to offer efficient and reliable nuclear power generation while meeting stringent safety and environmental standards.

Our world and Lapsset Corridor need more low-carbon clean power than ever. Rolls-Royce SMR Ltd (Small Modular Reactor) has been established to develop an affordable Nuclear power plants that generate electricity using a small modular reactor – an intelligent way to meet our future energy needs. 

From the IPCC AR6 Synthesis Report Climate Change 2023 Nuclear energy is the most powerful source of ‘always on’ clean energy, however, it must be deliverable, scalable and cost competitive for it to be widely embraced.  Rolls-Rolls-Royce SMR Ltd has designed a factory built nuclear power plant that will offer clean, affordable energy for all.

  • Proven technology for 60 years of use
  • Fast deliver – less build time
  • One tenth the size of a conventional Nuclear plant
  • Lower environmental / ecological impacts
  • Small footprint
  • Less complex construction
  • Reduced Risk
  • innovative delivery
  • Business experts
  • Lower running costs
  • Climate Change Mitigation
  • Transition to Net Zero
  • Stable long-term Energy
  • Clean, affordable Energy for all
  • Low-cost Baseload Electricity
  • Scalable
  • Can support Green Hydrogen plants

Rolls-Royce company Market deployment markets – could be of interest to Kenya

UK Government support announcement

Rolls-Royce today welcomed the announcement by the UK Government of a national endeavour to secure the future of the UK’s thriving defence and civil nuclear industry, with a package of investment in skills, jobs and communities.

Additionally, Rolls-Royce welcomed the launch of the Defence Nuclear Enterprise Command Paper, which was announced at the same time. This is a comprehensive, in-depth statement of UK nuclear policy and programmes and, for the first time, it sets out the full scale of the UK’s defence nuclear activity.

Rolls-Royce is playing a pivotal role in supporting growth in the nuclear industry and the drive to boost nuclear expertise in the UK.

To meet the growth in demand from the Royal Navy, which includes AUKUS delivery commitments, it plans to double the size of the Rolls-Royce Submarines site in Raynesway, Derby, creating over 1,000 highly-skilled jobs.

To support preparation for AUKUS and to meet the additional commitments to the UK Ministry of Defence (MOD), Rolls-Royce also announced the opening of two satellite offices in Glasgow and Cardiff. The locations were selected to help access the skilled talent pools in both regions, with more than 100 jobs being created in each city.

To further ensure a steady pipeline of future talent into the industry, Rolls-Royce opened a new Nuclear Skills Academy in Derby in 2022. It will provide 200 apprenticeships each year for at least the next decade.

Rolls-Royce is also at the forefront of additional nuclear development and innovation. The Novel Nuclear team are looking to the future for revolutionary new technology including providing reliable power systems with extremely long-life spans, and nuclear micro-reactors as a self-contained and power dense solution in space and on land.

Kenya Government

The Kenya Government have a fifteen-year Nuclear programme – www.nuclear.co.ke The Nuclear Power and Energy Agency, formerly Kenya Nuclear Electricity Board (KNEB), is a State Corporation established under the Energy Act 2019.

It is charged with the responsibility of promoting and implementing Kenya’s Nuclear Power Programme, carrying out research and development for the energy sector. Towards attainment of its mandate, the Nuclear Power and Energy Agency shall develop policies and legislation, undertake public education and awareness, identify suitable sites for the construction of Nuclear Power Plants; carry out research, development and innovation on energy technologies as well as capacity building for the energy sector.

The Rolls-Royce SMR (Small Modular Reactor) does not use sodium as a coolant or medium in its design. The Rolls-Royce SMR is an integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) that utilizes pressurized water as both the coolant and moderator in the reactor core. Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are the most common type of nuclear reactor design in commercial nuclear power plants worldwide. In a PWR, water is used to transfer heat from the reactor core to the steam generators, where it produces steam to drive the turbine and generate electricity.

While some small modular reactor designs, such as the Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR), use liquid sodium as a coolant, the Rolls-Royce SMR does not fall into this category. The use of pressurized water as a coolant in the Rolls-Royce SMR design offers certain advantages in terms of familiarity, operational experience, and proven safety characteristics.

GE Hitachi Sodium Fast Reactors Nuclear plant

PRISM

The Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) is GEH’s concept for a pool-type, liquid metal-fueled small modular SFR. With a rated thermal power of 840 MWe and an electrical output of 311 MWe, the PRISM reactor uses a metallic fuel submerged in a bath of liquid metal (sodium) at atmospheric pressure to maintain reactor temperatures well below design limits. Natural circulation removes heat from the reactor module.

The PRISM reactor concept is currently being put into practice in two reactors: the Natrium reactor in Wyoming and the ARC-100 in Canada. Learn more about these systems below.

There are several benefits of using Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) nuclear plants over conventional nuclear plants, including:

  1. Higher efficiency: Conventional Nuclear plants only use 5% of the energy in the Uranium rods discarding 95% of the spent fuel rods for disposal. SFR nuclear plants are more efficient in generating electricity compared to conventional nuclear plants. The higher efficiency translates to lower operating costs and lower electricity prices for consumers. The SFR can use the discarded fuel rods in their efficient process.
  2. Reduced waste: SFR nuclear plants produce less nuclear waste compared to conventional plants. This is because SFRs can use spent nuclear fuel as a source of energy, reducing the amount of waste that needs to be stored or disposed of.
  3. Enhanced safety: SFR nuclear plants have inherent safety features that make them less prone to accidents and meltdowns. The use of liquid sodium as a coolant and breeder in SFRs reduces the risk of overheating and provides better heat transfer properties, improving safety.
  4. Longer lifespan: SFR nuclear plants have a longer lifespan compared to conventional nuclear plants. The design and operation of SFRs allow for longer operation periods without the need for frequent maintenance or refueling, resulting in increased reliability and decreased downtime.
  5. Better fuel utilization: SFR nuclear plants have better fuel utilization rates compared to conventional plants. This means that SFRs can extract more energy from the same amount of fuel, resulting in higher energy production and reduced fuel costs.
  6. Reduced greenhouse gas emissions: SFR nuclear plants produce minimal greenhouse gas emissions compared to conventional fossil fuel power plants. This makes SFRs a more environmentally-friendly option for generating electricity and reducing carbon emissions.

Natrium power plant

The Natrium Technology

The Natrium technology — a 345-megawatt sodium fast reactor coupled with a molten salt-based integrated energy storage system — provides clean, flexible energy and stability for the grid.

TerraPower is working to advance a Natrium reactor demonstration project at a retiring coal plant in Kemmerer, Wyoming. The advanced energy demonstration project is intended to validate the design, construction and operational features of the Natrium system. The project will bring a commercial operating, advanced nuclear reactor online that will deliver carbon-free, reliable power to the electric grid and provide good-paying jobs in Wyoming for decades to come.


THE DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

TerraPower is working to advance a Natrium™ reactor demonstration project at a retiring coal plant in Kemmerer, Wyoming. This advanced energy demonstration project is intended to validate the design, construction and operational features of the Natrium system, a TerraPower and GE Hitachi technology.

The project features a 345 MWe sodium-cooled fast reactor with a molten salt-based energy storage system. The storage technology can boost the system’s output to 500 MW of power when needed, which is equivalent to the energy required to power around 400,000 homes. The energy storage capability allows the plant to integrate with grids that have a high penetration of renewable resources.

Arc Small Nuclear Plant RC-100

New Brunswick Power in Canada has selected the ARC-100 reactor for implementation at its Point Lepreau site. The Affordable, Robust, Compact SFR reactor is based on GEH’s PRISM configuration and is expected to produce 100 MWe as well as industrial heat comparable to larger coal-fired plants. The ARC-100 reactor promises to reshape the energy industry by providing scalable, carbon-free energy to New Brunswick Power’s customers.

Click on the link below to learn more about the ARC-100.