Green Hydrogen

Green Hydrogen Strategy

Alex K. Wachira – Principal Secretary State Department for Energy has indicated

“Kenya’s green hydrogen strategy is the product of concerted effort by the Green Hydrogen Working Group comprising officials from government, development partners,
private sector and academia.

Four pivotal areas have been identified where the focus will be resolute: the
formulation of an all-encompassing green hydrogen strategy and a roadmap; secondly, the cultivation of an environment conducive to growth facilitated through the establishment of regulatory and policy frameworks that will enable and propel
green hydrogen endeavours; thirdly, the facilitation of financial mechanisms and technical guidance to foster its deployment; and finally, the dynamic exploration and testing of cross-sector applications that capitalise on the potential of green hydrogen.”

Agenda 2063

Agenda 2063 is Africa’s visionary blueprint and master plan for transforming the continent into a global powerhouse by the year 2063. It represents the collective aspirations of African nations, aiming for inclusive and sustainable development. Let’s delve into the details:

  1. Origins and Purpose:
    • African leaders recognized the need to shift focus from the struggle against apartheid and political independence (which were central to the Organization of African Unity, OAU) to broader priorities.
    • Agenda 2063 prioritizes:
      • Inclusive social and economic development
      • Continental and regional integration
      • Democratic governance
      • Peace and security
    • The goal is to reposition Africa as a dominant player in the global arena.
  2. Key Objectives:
    • Unity: Agenda 2063 embodies the pan-African drive for unity, self-determination, freedom, progress, and collective prosperity.
    • Strategic Framework: It provides a strategic framework for achieving long-term development goals.
    • 50-Year Vision: The vision is to create an integrated, prosperous, and peaceful Africa driven by its own citizens.
    • Flagship Programs: Agenda 2063 identifies key programs to boost economic growth and rapid transformation.
  3. Concrete Manifestation:
    • Genesis: The realization by African leaders led to the formulation of Agenda 2063.
    • 50th Anniversary Solemn Declaration: Heads of state and government signed this declaration in 2013, reaffirming their commitment to Africa’s new path.
    • Dr. Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma, former Chairperson of the African Union Commission, captured the Africa of the future.
  4. Transformational Outcomes:
    • Agenda 2063 aims to eradicate poverty, provide affordable housing, catalyse education, transform economies, modernize agriculture, address climate change, and achieve gender parity.

Green Hydrogen plants

We propose 2.2 GW of Green Hydrogen plants for the Lapsset CorridorHydrogen Hubs – an alternative to Oil usage in transportation

Even though Kenya has already a good Renewable Energy mix, green hydrogen is seen as an additional energy source for Kenya that will reduce CO2 emissions and help reduce oil usage, which is the main contributor to Carbon Dioxide emissions in Kenya.

Kenya targets 30GW of green hydrogen after signing strategic deal with UK

(The global emissions of CO2 from Hydrogen production using fossil fuels is stated incorrectly in the video).

When hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels such as natural gas or coal using methods like steam methane reforming (SMR) or coal gasification, the global emissions of carbon dioxide are significant.

On average, around 9-14 kilograms of carbon dioxide are emitted for every kilogram of hydrogen produced through these processes. This means that fossil fuel-based hydrogen production is a major source of carbon dioxide emissions globally.

In order to address climate change and reduce emissions, it is essential to transition towards cleaner and more sustainable methods of hydrogen production, such as electrolysis powered by renewable energy sources. This would help to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of hydrogen production and support the goal of achieving a more sustainable energy system.


November 2022 – Kenya’s President said it aims to produce 30GW of green hydrogen production after signing a KES500bn deal with the UK to fast track green investments.

The UK-Kenya Strategic Partnership is an ambitious five-year agreement that aims to unlock benefits for both countries.

The UK Government will commit KES2bn to a new guarantee company that will lower investment risk and unlock KES12bn of climate finance for Kenyan projects over the next 3 years, through collaboration with CPF Financial Services and other private investors.

The Malindi Solar Expansion will receive an additional KES7.5bn investment.

Plans at the 40MW solar plant, constructed by UK company Globeleq with finance from British International Investment, which was connected to the grid in December 2021, will double the size of Malindi Solar and add battery storage.

We propose 2.2 GW of Green Hydrogen plants for the Lapsset Corridor.

The global emissions of carbon dioxide in the production of hydrogen vary depending on the method used.

  1. Steam Methane Reforming (SMR): This is currently the most common method of hydrogen production, and it produces around 9-12 kilograms of CO2 for every kilogram of hydrogen produced.
  2. Coal gasification: This method produces around 10-14 kilograms of CO2 for every kilogram of hydrogen produced.
  3. Electrolysis (using fossil fuels for electricity): This method can produce around 12-21 kilograms of CO2 for every kilogram of hydrogen produced.
  4. Electrolysis (using renewable energy sources): This method has the potential to produce zero emissions of carbon dioxide if renewable energy sources such as wind or solar power are used.

Overall, the production of hydrogen currently contributes to global carbon dioxide emissions, but there is potential to reduce or eliminate these emissions by shifting towards cleaner and more sustainable methods of production.

Siemens – A 50MW Green Hydrogen Plant would cost US $40.15 Million

7,963.64 metric tonnes of hydrogen produced per year

The amount of renewable electricity required to power a smaller 50MW Green Hydrogen plant can vary depending on the efficiency of the electrolysis process used to produce hydrogen. In general, the electricity required for electrolysis is typically around 50-55 kWh per kilogram of hydrogen produced.

Assuming the plant operates at a 90% efficiency and produces around 6.3 kg of hydrogen per hour, it would require approximately 315 kWh per hour. Over the course of a year, this would amount to around 1.5 GWh of electricity needed to power a 50MW Green Hydrogen plant.

This figure may fluctuate depending on the specific technology and design of the hydrogen plant, as well as variables such as the input power price and the local energy grid’s capacity and reliability.

Siemens 1GW Hydrogen plant in China

A 1,000MW (1GW) plant costs US $803 million

The reason for Green Hydrogen being important is that it is seen as an alternative transportation fuel and as a means of lowering CO2 emissions and to be used in high energy usage industries such as Steel manufacturing. Currently Oil accounts for over 14 million tons a year of CO2 emissions, the highest contribution is from Oil.

Setting up a Hydrogen Hub in the Lapsset Corridor

Setting up a hydrogen hub in a country such as Kenya within the Lapsset Corridor would require several key components and considerations. These may include:

  1. Government support and investment: The government of Kenya would need to provide support and investment for the development of a hydrogen hub within the Lapsset Corridor. This could include financial incentives, policy support, and regulatory frameworks that promote the adoption and use of hydrogen as a clean energy source.
  2. Infrastructure development: Establishing a hydrogen hub would require the development of infrastructure such as hydrogen production facilities, storage facilities, and distribution networks. This would need to be planned and implemented in coordination with other existing infrastructure within the Lapsset Corridor.
  3. Technology and expertise: The implementation of a hydrogen hub would require access to the necessary technology and expertise for hydrogen production, storage, and distribution. This will involve collaboration with our PSECC Ltd international partners and the establishment of partnerships with academic institutions and research organizations.
  4. Stakeholder engagement: Involving key stakeholders such as local communities, industry players, and other relevant parties would be essential for the successful establishment of a hydrogen hub in the Lapsset Corridor. This would help to ensure buy-in and support for the project, as well as address any potential concerns or challenges that may arise.
  5. Market development: Developing a market for hydrogen within Kenya and the region would also be crucial for the success of a hydrogen hub. This could involve promoting the use of hydrogen as a clean energy source in various sectors such as transportation, industry, and power generation.

Overall, setting up a hydrogen hub in a country like Kenya within the Lapsset Corridor would require a coordinated effort involving government, industry, and other stakeholders to develop the necessary infrastructure, technology, and market for hydrogen as a clean energy source.

Green Hydrogen Plant project at Malindi

This project is not part of Lapsset Corridor but does serve as an example – by products of the corporation will include chlorine, caustic soda, hydrogen gas, Ethylene Dichloride (EDC).

Lamu Port could be a site for a Green Hydrogen Hub

Hydrogen is an essential component of a net zero energy system and has a key role to play in decarbonising sectors that are difficult to electrify, such as heavy industry and long-haul transport. Vast green hydrogen potential exists around the world, equating to more than 20 times global primary energy demand in 2050. However, the potential within specific countries or regions depends on the land available. This report estimates the potential for green hydrogen production as a function of land availability, considering exclusion zones such as protected areas, forests, wetlands, urban centres, slope and water scarcity. It forms part of a series of three reports focusing on global hydrogen trade in a 1.5°C scenario in 2050.

Hydrogen – fuel of the future

Hydrogen will play an important role in decarbonisation across the Lapsset Corridor economy, from industrial processes to heat and power. 

Siemens contact details – +49 911 6505 6505 or send an e-mail to

Green hydrogen can be used as a sustainable fuel source in cement manufacturing. Cement production is known for being a major emitter of carbon dioxide (CO2) due to the combustion of fossil fuels in the production process. By using green hydrogen, which is produced using renewable energy sources through a process called electrolysis, cement manufacturers can reduce their carbon footprint and achieve lower emissions. Green hydrogen can be used as a clean energy source for heating and powering cement kilns, which are the key equipment used in the production of cement.

By using green hydrogen instead of traditional fossil fuels such as coal or natural gas, cement manufacturers can significantly reduce the carbon emissions associated with their operations. Many cement companies around the world are exploring the use of green hydrogen and other sustainable energy sources to decarbonize their production processes and move towards more environmentally friendly practices. The use of green hydrogen in cement manufacturing is seen as a promising solution to help reduce the environmental impact of the cement industry and contribute to global efforts to combat climate change.

According to the EU Hydrogen Strategy (European Hydrogen Backbone), it is critical to produce green hydrogen at locations with sufficient solar and wind resources. Only at such locations, low-cost green hydrogen can compete with present-day fossil-based hydrogen, and in the long run with natural gas.

But compared to other regions of the world, Europe is not a location with fine solar and wind resources and other world regions such as Kenya represent more competitive conditions to generate cost-effective green hydrogen.

How much water is used

How much water does electrolysis consume?
…Step 1: hydrogen production

Water consumption comes from two steps: hydrogen production and the production of the upstream energy carrier. Looking at hydrogen production, the minimum water electrolysis can consume is about 9 kg of water per kg of hydrogen. However, taking into account the process of water de-mineralisation, the ratio can range between 18 kg and 24 kg of water per kg of hydrogen or even up to 25.7-30.2 according to. For the incumbent production process (steam reforming of methane), the minimum water consumption is 4.5 kgH2O/kgH2 (needed for the reaction), which increases to 6.4-32.2 kgH2O/kgH2 when considering the water for the process and cooling.

…Step 2: the energy source (renewable electricity or natural gas)

The other component is the water consumption for the production of renewable electricity and natural gas. Water consumption for PV can vary between 50-400 l per MWh (2.4-19 kgH2O/kgH2) and between 5-45 l per MWh for wind (0.2-2.1 kgH2O/kgH2). Similarly, natural gas production can be 1.14 kgH2O/kgH2 increasing to 4.9 kgH2O/kgH2 for shale gas (based on US data).In sum, the total water consumption for hydrogen from PV and wind can be, on average, around 32 and 22 kgH2O/kgH2 respectively (see Figure below). Uncertainties arise from the solar radiation, lifetime and silicon content.  This water consumption is in the same order of magnitude as hydrogen production from natural gas (7.6-37 kgH2O/kgH2 with an average of 22 kgH2O/kgH2).

Total water footprint: lower when using renewable energy

Similar to the CO2 emissions, a pre-condition for the electrolytic route to have a low water footprint is the use of renewable energy. If just a fraction of fossil-based generation is used the water consumption associated to the electricity is much higher than the actual water consumed in the electrolysis process. For instance, water consumption for electricity production from natural gas can be up to 2,500 l per MWh. This is also using the best case for fossil fuels (from natural gas). If coal gasification is considered, it can consume 31-31.8 kgH2O/kgH2 for hydrogen production with another 14.7 kgH2O/kgH2 from the coal production. Water consumption for PV and wind is also expected to decrease over time as the manufacturing process becomes more efficient and the energy output per unit of installed capacity also improves.

Total water consumption in 2050

Future global hydrogen use is expected to be many times larger than today. For example, the World Energy Transitions Outlook from IRENA estimates the 2050 hydrogen demand will be about 74 EJ, of which about two thirds will be from renewable hydrogen. This compares to 8.4 EJ today (for pure hydrogen). Even if the entire 2050 hydrogen demand would be satisfied with electrolytic hydrogen, the water consumption would be about 25 bcm

Figure (below) puts this number in perspective with other anthropogenic water consumption flows. Water consumption for agricultural use is the largest one of the order of 2,800 bcm, water for industrial uses is close to 800 bcm and 470 bcm for municipal uses.

Current hydrogen production from natural gas reforming and coal gasification has a water consumption of about 1.5 bcm. So, even though a large growth of water consumption is expected due to the change to the electrolytical pathway and to the demand growth, water consumption for hydrogen production will still be much smaller than other flows for human use.

Another point of reference is that the water withdrawals per capita is between 75 (Luxembourg) and 1,200 (US) m3 per year . Taking an average value of 400 m3/(capita*year), the total 2050 hydrogen production would be equivalent to a country with 62 million inhabitants.

Hydrogen Fuel Station