Electric Cars & Hydrogen cars

Electric Cars for Lapsset Corridor

Ethiopia set to ban New combustion cars by 2035
  • The European Union last week approved a law that will ban the sale of combustion engine cars in its member states from 2035.
  • In Norway, around 80 percent of new cars sold are already fully electric.
  • Not all lawmakers favor a full phase-out of gasoline powered vehicles, with some speaking out against the ambitious timeline.

The European Union last week approved a law that will ban the sale of combustion engine cars in its member states from 2035.

For Germany and Italy as well as for Romania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic and Hungary, the new bill sets a first deadline for the sale of gasoline-powered cars.

However, as Statista’s Katharina Buchholz reports, the current governments of the former two countries, however, have already spoken out against the ban – calling into question the timeline of the phase-out that climate scientists call absolutely necessary, but that could also face delays.

Ethiopia spent nearly $6 billion to import fossil fuels last year — with more than half of that spending going to fuel vehicles. In response, Ethiopia’s Transport and Logistics Ministries have announced that automobiles cannot enter Ethiopia, unless they are electric. (!)

Last February, the European Union approved a law that would ban the sale of combustion engine cars in its member states from 2035 — joining several US statesCanadaJapan, Singapore, India, New Zealand, and a number of other nations with similar bans already on the books (see chart, below). Ethiopia, however, isn’t waiting for 2035.

Ethiopia is trying to ban ICE vehicles now.

According to a news update from the parliament, Alemu Sime, the Ethiopian Minister for Transport and Logistics, announced the completion of the nations Logistics Master Plan Monday. Details were scarce, but he has announced that, “a decision has been made, that automobiles cannot enter Ethiopia unless they are electric ones.”

Electric cars should be promoted and used in the Lapsset Corridor project in Kenya for several reasons:

  1. Environmental benefits: Electric cars produce zero tailpipe emissions, leading to lower air pollution and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. This would help mitigate the impacts of climate change and improve air quality in the region.
  2. Cost savings: Electric cars have lower operating costs compared to traditional gasoline-powered vehicles. This would result in long-term savings for individuals and businesses using electric vehicles in the Lapsset Corridor project.
  3. Energy independence: By promoting electric cars, Kenya can reduce its reliance on imported oil and increase its energy independence by utilizing its abundant renewable energy resources, such as solar and wind power, to charge the vehicles.
  4. Technological advancement: By integrating electric vehicles into the Lapsset Corridor project, Kenya can showcase its commitment to sustainable development and innovation, leading to economic growth and attracting investments in clean energy technologies.
  5. Health benefits: Electric vehicles have lower noise pollution and reduce exposure to harmful pollutants, leading to improved public health outcomes for residents and workers in the Lapsset Corridor project area.

Overall, promoting and using electric cars in the Lapsset Corridor project in Kenya would align with the country’s goals of sustainable development, energy security, and environmental protection.

In 2021, there are approximately 100 electric car charging stations in Kenya. These charging stations are located in various cities such as Nairobi, Mombasa, Kisumu, and Naivasha. The number of charging stations is expected to increase in the coming years as the demand for electric vehicles grows in the country.

The administration of President William Ruto aims to construct 1,000 electric vehicle charging stations across Kenya under its ambitious economic development plan from 2022 to 2027.

The plan envisions 700 stations in urban areas and 300 along highways.

The massive infrastructure project was outlined Thursday in new “Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging and Battery Swapping Infrastructure Guidelines” from the Energy and Petroleum Regulatory Authority. The comprehensive guidelines aim to promote accessibility, reliability and affordability of charging systems in order to accelerate EV adoption nationwide.

Under the guidelines, public charging stations must meet extensive minimum requirements including having dedicated transformers, civil works like ramps, restroom facilities, fire safety equipment, and using only certified and approved charging equipment. Private charging points at homes or businesses have fewer infrastructure requirements but still need inspection and approval.

Battery swapping stations, where EV batteries can be quickly exchanged for fully charged ones, must meet detailed standards for space, battery management systems, unique identification numbers on each battery, and overall safety.

The guidelines also stipulate that installers must provide documentation, warranties and insurance. There are specifications for minimum distance between public charging points, and a national database of all stations will be created.

Signage, accessibility for disabled persons, and fair pricing requirements are outlined. Technical requirements cover measurement systems, smart functionality, communication systems, data privacy and cybersecurity.

Complaints about stations or installers will be handled by the Energy Regulatory Authority. The comprehensive guidelines take effect September 1. According to the government, imports of electric vehicles began about 10 years ago, driven mainly by the private sector. But uptake has been slow due to high costs compared to gasoline models, insufficient charging infrastructure nationwide, and uncertainties about sustainable energy supply.

“With government support, electric vehicles have started to penetrate the Kenyan market. However, there is currently no framework that encourages uptake and penetration through an enabling framework,” the statement said. “These new guidelines aim to change that.”

Comparison between Electric cars and fossil fuelled cars

The comparison of CO2 emissions between electric cars and fossil fuelled cars traveling one mile depends on several factors such as the fuel source of electricity used to charge the electric car and the fuel efficiency of the fossil fuelled car.

Here is a general comparison:

Electric cars: On average, electric cars produce zero tailpipe emissions when driving one mile. However, the emissions associated with electric vehicles come from the electricity generation process. The CO2 emissions from charging an electric car depend on the source of electricity. If the electricity comes from renewable sources such as solar or wind power, the emissions would be minimal or zero. If the electricity comes from coal or gas power plants, the emissions would be higher.

Fossil fuelled cars: On average, gasoline-powered cars emit around 2.3 kg of CO2 per litre of gasoline burned. A car that gets 30 miles per gallon (mpg) would emit around 9.1 kg of CO2 when driving one mile.

In general, electric cars have the potential to produce lower CO2 emissions compared to fossil fuelled cars when considering overall emissions from electricity generation and vehicle operation. However, the exact comparison would depend on the specific fuel sources of electricity and the fuel efficiency of the fossil fuelled car.

Calculation

To calculate the CO2 emissions from electric cars and fossil-fuelled cars traveling one mile within the Lapsset Corridor, we need to consider the emissions associated with each type of vehicle based on their energy source and fuel efficiency.

  1. Electric cars:
  • The average CO2 emissions per kWh of electricity in Kenya is around 0.6 kg according to data from the International Energy Agency.
  • The average electric car consumes around 0.2 kWh per mile.
  • Therefore, the CO2 emissions per mile for an electric car can be calculated as: 0.6 kg/kWh * 0.2 kWh/mile = 0.12 kg CO2/mile.
  1. Fossil-fueled cars:
  • The emissions associated with gasoline combustion are around 2.3 kg of CO2 per liter.
  • A car with a fuel efficiency of 30 mpg would consume about 0.0333 liters/mile (1 gallon / 30 mpg).
  • Therefore, the CO2 emissions per mile for a fossil-fueled car can be calculated as: 2.3 kg/liter * 0.0333 liters/mile = 0.077 kg CO2/mile.

Based on these calculations, an electric car traveling one mile would produce approximately 0.12 kg of CO2 emissions, while a fossil-fuelled car traveling the same distance would produce around 0.077 kg of CO2 emissions.

This calculation shows that electric cars have the potential to produce slightly higher CO2 emissions per mile compared to fossil-fuelled cars, but the emissions from electric cars can vary significantly depending on the source of electricity used for charging.

Smart Cities and Infrastructure required for Electric Cars and Hydrogen cars

In smart cities within the Lapsset Corridor, infrastructure plays a crucial role in promoting the adoption and use of electric cars and hydrogen cars.

Here are some key infrastructure elements that need to be in place:

  1. Charging stations for electric cars:
  • A network of charging stations is essential to support the use of electric cars in smart cities. These stations can be installed in public areas, parking lots, shopping centers, and residential neighborhoods.
  • Fast-charging stations are particularly important to reduce charging times and make electric cars more convenient for users.
  • Smart charging infrastructure that can manage energy demand and optimize charging times based on grid conditions and user preferences.
  1. Battery swapping stations:
  • Battery swapping stations provide an alternative to traditional charging stations, allowing electric car owners to quickly swap out their depleted batteries for fully charged ones.
  • This infrastructure can help reduce charging times and address range anxiety concerns for electric car users.
  1. Hydrogen refueling stations for hydrogen cars:
  • Hydrogen refueling stations are necessary to support the use of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in smart cities.
  • These stations dispense compressed hydrogen gas to fuel hydrogen cars and help address range limitations associated with these vehicles.
  • Infrastructure for hydrogen production and distribution to ensure a steady supply of hydrogen fuel.
  1. Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) infrastructure:
  • V2G technology enables bidirectional energy flow between electric vehicles and the grid, allowing vehicle batteries to store and discharge electricity.
  • V2G infrastructure can help stabilize the grid, manage peak demand, and support renewable energy integration by utilizing electric vehicle batteries as distributed energy storage units.
  1. Data connectivity and smart grid integration:
  • Connectivity and communication infrastructure to enable smart grid integration of electric and hydrogen vehicles.
  • Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication systems that allow cars to interact with traffic signals, parking systems, and other infrastructure elements for efficient operation and navigation.
  1. Incentives and policies:
  • In addition to physical infrastructure, smart cities need supportive policies and incentives to encourage the adoption of electric and hydrogen vehicles.
  • Incentives such as tax credits, rebates, and preferential parking for clean vehicles.
  • Policy frameworks that promote sustainable transportation, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and support the development of a low-carbon transportation system in smart cities.

By having these infrastructure elements in place, smart cities can create a supportive environment for the widespread adoption and use of electric and hydrogen cars, contributing to a cleaner, more sustainable transportation system.

Hydrogen Cars

The LAPSSET (Lamu Port-South Sudan-Ethiopia Transport) Corridor our major infrastructure project in Eastern Africa aimed at enhancing regional connectivity, trade, and economic development. The corridor involves the development of ports, railways, roads, and pipelines linking Kenya, South Sudan, and Ethiopia.

Here are some reasons why hydrogen cars could be beneficial for use in the LAPSSET Corridor:

  1. Environmental sustainability: Hydrogen cars are zero-emission vehicles that produce only water vapor as a byproduct of their operation. In regions with concerns about air pollution, such as major transportation corridors like LAPSSET, hydrogen cars can help reduce emissions and improve air quality.
  2. Energy security: Hydrogen is a versatile and clean energy carrier that can be produced from a variety of sources, including renewable energy. By utilizing hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in the LAPSSET Corridor, countries can reduce their dependence on imported fossil fuels and enhance energy security.
  3. Long-range capability: Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles have longer driving ranges compared to battery electric vehicles (BEVs). This could be beneficial for transportation in the vast LAPSSET Corridor, which covers long distances and connects multiple countries.
  4. Quick refueling times: Hydrogen refueling stations can fill up a tank of hydrogen in a matter of minutes, similar to refueling a conventional gasoline vehicle. This can provide convenience for drivers and support efficient transportation along the LAPSSET Corridor.
  5. Support for economic development: The development of hydrogen infrastructure and the adoption of hydrogen cars in the LAPSSET Corridor could stimulate economic growth and create new opportunities in the clean transportation sector. This could also attract investment in hydrogen production, distribution, and refueling infrastructure.
  6. Demonstration of sustainable transport solutions: By introducing hydrogen cars in the LAPSSET Corridor, countries in the region can showcase their commitment to sustainable transportation and environmental stewardship. This could help position the corridor as a model for green transport infrastructure development in Africa.

Overall, hydrogen cars could be a viable and sustainable transportation solution for the LAPSSET Corridor, offering environmental benefits, energy security, long-range capability, quick refuelling times, and opportunities for economic development. Their adoption could contribute to the development of a cleaner and more efficient transport system in the region, aligning with the goals of the LAPSSET project to enhance connectivity and promote sustainable development.

Hydrogen Trucks

Electric Trucks would need too many batteries restricting cargo space then use Hydrogen

There are several reasons why hydrogen trucks could be preferred over electric trucks within the Lapsset Corridor in Kenya:

  1. Longer range: Hydrogen trucks have a longer range compared to electric trucks, making them more suitable for long-haul transportation along the Lapsset Corridor, which stretches from Lamu to South Sudan and Ethiopia.
  2. Faster refueling: Hydrogen trucks can be refueled much faster than electric trucks, saving time and increasing productivity for truck drivers and logistics companies operating within the Lapsset Corridor.
  3. Reduced downtime: Hydrogen trucks have a quicker refueling time and longer range, which means less downtime for truck drivers and logistics companies operating within the Lapsset Corridor.
  4. Lower weight: Hydrogen fuel cell technology tends to be lighter than batteries, which can help improve the payload capacity of trucks, resulting in more efficient transportation of goods along the Lapsset Corridor.
  5. Environmental benefits: Hydrogen trucks produce zero emissions at the tailpipe, reducing their impact on the environment and helping to mitigate the effects of climate change along the Lapsset Corridor.

Overall, the use of hydrogen trucks within the Lapsset Corridor in Kenya could provide numerous benefits in terms of range, refuelling speed, payload capacity, and environmental impact compared to electric trucks.